Friday, December 26, 2014

CBSE NCERT 10th History Questions with solution

Class : 10th (History)    Chapter _The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Q.1 Define Nation:

Ans: A ‘Nation’ has thus been defined as “a body of people who feel themselves to be actually linked together by certain affinities which are so strong and real from them that they can live happily together, are dissatisfied when disunited and cannot tolerate subjection of peoples who do not share these ideas.”

Q.2 What do you mean by nationalism?

Ans: The words ‘nation’ and ‘nationality’ are derived from the Latin word ‘Natus’ which means a ‘race’. Devotion, love, and patriotic feelings for one’s own nation is called ‘Nationalism’. It is a feeling of political
consciousness and unity among the people of a state.

Q.3 What is the main contribution of the French Revolution to the world?

Ans: The French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of citizens. It proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.

Q.4 What factors led to the rise of Nationalism in Europe?

Ans: Factors that led to the rise of Nationalism in Europe. Nationalism provided one of the greatest forces in Europe in the 19th century. The following were responsible for the rise of nationalism in Europe:

1) Decline of Feudalism:
Feudal lords were a great tumbling bloc in the way of the rise of the national
feelings among the people. But many causes led to their fall. Many of them died in mutual warfare. The crusades also impoverished the barons. Without the destruction of nobility the cause of nationalism might have been greatly suffered.

2) Weakness of Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages the Church enjoyed and exalted
position and commanded a great power. But the Renaissance and Reformation movements led to awakening among the people and weakened the authority of the Pope. Consequently, national churches and national states were established in many countries.

3) Wars. Sometimes the wars also infused the spirit of nationalism. The Hundred Years War between England and France gave rise to national feeling both in France and England. It roused nationalism among the people of both the countries in the face of a common foe.

4) Foreign Rule. In certain countries foreign rule played an important part in the growth of nationalism. The foreign rulers suppressed the people under them cruelly and mercilessly. But all this led to reaction and united the people against the foreign rule and infused the spirit of nationalism in them to free themselves from the foreign yoke.

5) Geographical Factor. Geographical factor also helped a lot in the rise of nationalism. National boundaries of a country surely create the feeling of political consciousness and oneness among the people. For example, England is bounded by sea on all the sides. It facilitated the rise of the feelings of unity and nationalism among the English.

6) Reaction against Injustice. Reaction against injustice also leads to nationalism. The Vienna Settlement after the Napoleonic Wars tried to suppress the force of revolution and nationalism in Europe. But soon there started a reaction against the arbitrary rule and the people of the subjected countries started national movements for their independence.

7) Contribution of Great Writers. Many writers, poets, statesmen, politicians and philosophers, etc. also
made valuable contribution to the growth of nationalism. Machiavelli had bben rightly called the father of
modern nationalism. The writings of J. S. Mill, Fitech, Mazzini, Garibaldi etc. went a long way in rousig
political consciousness and national spirit among the people.

Q.5 Mention the obstacles in the way of the Italian unification.

Ans. There were many obstacles in the way of the unification of Italy in the 19th century. Some of the most important are the following:

1. Division of Italy into so many States.

Italy, which was once the leader of Renaissance, became a very weak and powerless country in the 16th century. So sItaly lost its unity and was parceled out into so many  states. These states always used to quarrel among themselves and thus they rendered themselves quite weak.

2. Foreign Rule.

Foreign invaders took advantage of Italy’s weakness and invaded it over and over again. Especially France and Austria established their rule over a great part of Italy. Napoleon, the French Emperor, had conquered the whole of Italy. Thus the foreign rule was great hurdle in the way of the  Italian unification.

3. Congress of Vienna.

After the downfall of Napolean, the Congress of Vienna once again divided Italy into small states. Lombardy  nd Venetia were handed over to Austria while Parma, Tuscany and Modena were handed over to France. Similarly, many old rulers, who were against the spirit of unity, were restored to their respective thrones.  Thus the Congress played a great havoc with the task of Italian unification.

4. The Pope of Rome.

The Pope of Rome was keeping Rome and its adjoining territories under his dominance. He was acting as the head of all the Christian countries of the world as such he was also proving a great hurdle in the way of the Italian unification. He had kept the foreign forces to throw out any attempt of the patriots to snatch Rome from him.
5. Reactionary Rulers. Even those states which were under the dominance of Italian rulers were not at all cooperative with the nationalists. They were reactionaries and were ever ready in curbing the nationalist feelings. These rulers were, thus, also proving a great hurdle in the way of Italian unification.

The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China

Q.1 Why did the French develop infrastructure in Vietnam?

Ans: i) To help transport goods for trade.
ii) To move military garrisons.
iii) To control the entire region.
iv) French business interests wee also pressing the government of Vietnam to develop the infrastructure further.

Q.2 What was the cause of the defeat of the French forces in the battle of Dien Bien Phu?

Ans: i) The valley where the French garrisons were located was flooded in the monsoon which made it impossible for the French forces and thanks to move.

ii) The whole area was covered with bushes and jungles making it difficult for the French air force to trace the anti-aircraft guns hidden in the bushes and the jungles.

Nationalism In India

Q.1 What did the slogan of Swaraj mean? How was the slogan of complete independence different from
it? When and where was the slogan of complete independence adopted?

Ans: The slogan of Swaraj meant self-government or the system of government that was prevailing in the  elfgoverned British colonies. The slogan of Swaraj, however, did not mean complete independence from all
foreign control. Thus, Swaraj and complete independence differed much from each other. Swaraj was self-government but not free from foreign control while complete independence meant freedom from all internal and external control.

Q.2 What is the importance of 26th January 1930?

Ans: 26 January, 1930. In 1929 at the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress, under the presidentship of Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Congress declared the attainment of complete independence as its chief goal. It was also decided to celebrate 26 January as the Independence Day all over the country. As such on 26th January, 1930, the Independence Day was celebrated all over the country and the Congress flag was hoisted at many places.

Q.3 Name the factors that made the national movement a mass movement at the end of the First World
Ans: The following were main factors that made the national movement a mass movement at the end of the First-World War:

1) The arrival of Mohandas Karamchand Gandehi on the political field of India gave an impetus to the national movement and converted it into a mass movement. His method of non-violent resistance, introduction of the spinning wheel and the gospel of the Hindu-Muslim unity drew millions of people into
the National Movement.

2) The war expenditure imposed on India had impoverished the masses so much that they turned against the British Government in large members.

3) The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms (1919) fell short of the aspirations of the Indians. They further
angered the Indian masses.

4) The defeat and dismemberment of Turkey by the Alies had turned the Muslim masses against the British

5) The Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy had aroused a wave of popular indignation throughout
the country.

Q.4 When was the Muslim League formed? Describe briefly the policies of the Muslim League from
1906 to 1940. When was the formation of a separate state of Pakistan adopted as the main aim of
the Muslim League?

Ans: The Muslimi League was formed on 30th December, 1906. Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca and Mohammad Ali Jinnah were some of its prominent leaders.

1) to ask for more and more reforms for the Muslims.
2) to protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India.
3) to promote amongst the Muslims of India, the feelings of loyalty to the British Government for getting
more and more benefits for the Muslims.
4) to keep the Muslim masses away from the Congress.
5) to make a demand for the separate electorate and then for a separate state for the Muslims.
It was with these objectives in mind that the Muslim League at its Lahore Session in 1940 A.D. for the first time asked for the formation of a separate state of Pakistan.

Q.5 Why was the Simon Commission boycotted by the Indians? Give two reasons.

Ans: Simon Commission. In November 1927, the British Government appointed the Simon Commission to look into the working of the Act of 1919 or Montague-Chelmsford Reforms and to suggest changes, if necessary. This commission was headed by a London Barrister named Sir John Simon so it is generally
known as the Simon Commission. This Commission comprising of seven members, arrived in India in
1928 A.D. but everywhere it was boycotted by the Indian people.

Why was it boycotted by the Indian People?
Now a question arises as to why the Simon Commission was boycotted by the Indian people. The reasons for this are not too far to seek:

1) Firstly, this Commission did not include any Indian member in it.
2) Secondly, the clauses of this Commission did not contain any hope of ‘Swaraj’ for the Indians.

Q.6 What were the reasons for launching Civil Disobedience Movement by the Congress?

Ans: In the Lahore Session (Dec. 1929) of the Congress, it was decided to launch the Civil Disobedience
Movement. There were many reasons for launching this movement.

1) The British Government has deprived the Indian people of their freedom so it was a crime to submit such
a rule.

2) The Congress has declared Complete Independence as its aim in the Lahore Session of 1929 so the most
effective way of gaining such a freedom was through non-violence by starting the civil disobedience
movement including nonpayment to taxes.

3) The British Government has economically exploited the people.
4) Not only economically it has exploited the masses politically, culturally and spiritually.

The Making of A Global World

Q.1 What is Rinderpest?

Ans: It was a fast spreading disease of cattle plague which had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihood and
the local economy of many countries and especially Africa in the 1890s.

Q.2 What was called Hosay?

Ans: The Trinidad, a south American country, the riotous Muharram procession or carnival began to be called ‘Hosay’.

Q.3 Name some Indian Entrepreneurs who ventured abroad?

Ans: (i) Shikaripuri Shroffs and Natthukottan Chetiarrs who financed export agriculture in Central and South
East Asia.

(ii) Hyderabadi, Sindhi traders who set up their establishments at busy parts world wide.

Q.4 Which countries were known as ‘Alies’ in the first World War (1914-1918)?

Ans: Britain, France, Russia and U.S. were known as Allies.

Q.5. How much was the human loss in the First World War?

Ans: About nine million people dead and 20 million injured

Q.6. Who was Henry Ford?

Ans: He was well-known pioneer of mass production in the field of car manufacturing.

Q.7. What were the Axis Powers in the Second World War?

Ans: Mainly Nazi Germany, Japan and Italy.

Q.8. What was the human loss in the Second World War?

Ans: At least 60 million people are believed to have been killed in this war, directly or indirectly or indirectly,
and millions more were injured.

Q.9. What is the international monetary system?

Ans: It is the system which links national currency with the monetary system. This system was fixed on fixed
exchange rates.

Q.10. What do you mean by G-77?

Ans: It was a Group of 77 developing countries which did not benefit from the fast growth which the Western economies experienced in 1950s.

Q.11. What is Globalisation?

Ans: Globalisation means integrating our economy with the world economy. As a result, producers of other
countries can sell their goods and services in India and likewise India can also sell its goods and services in other countries. As a result of globalization, the different countries of the world become economically inter-dependant on each other.

Q.12. What led to globalization?

Ans: (i) Trade
(ii) Migration of the people in search of work.
(iii) The movement of capital

Q.13. Why did the indentured hired on Contract workers from India become ready to migrate to other

Ans: (i) Cottage industries declined and they got deep in depth.
(ii) Land rents rose and they failed to pay them.
(iii) Their lands were forcibly cleared for mines and plantations.

Q.14. Whed why was the indentured labour migration abolished?

Ans: It was abolished in 1921 because India’s nationalist leaders opposed this system as abusive and cruel.

Q.15. What were the major items of exports from India between 1812 and 1870?

Ans: (i) Raw cotton whose export rose from 5% to 35% between 1812 to 1871.
(ii) Opium shipment to China which enabled the British to finance its tea and other export from China.

Q.16. What is meant by the Assembly line?
Ans: When different parts of a machine like cars and manufactured at different places but are assembled at one single place, such a system is called an assembly line.

Q.16 What was the main aim of post-war international economic system?

Ans: (i) To preserve economic stability
(ii) Full employment in the industrial world.

Q.17. Why were the Multi-National Companies (MNCs) attracted towards the developing countries?
Ans: (i) Because wages were relatively low in such countries.
(ii) It was thought better to invest in these countries for more and more of profits.

Q.18. Write short note on – The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.

Ans. MNCs are multinational companies which invest money in different countries. From the late 1970s, they began to shift production operations to low wage Asian countries. Such a thing or decision had a far reaching impact.

i) Such a decision increased the job opportunities in the Asian countries and to a great extent they helped in
solving the unemployment problem.

ii) These MNCs helped the Asian countries to come out of the former colonial powers which still held the
main controls of economic power in many new independent countries, but which were once under their control.

iii) The coming of MNCs in Asian countries enabled the people to enjoy new varieties of things which they
began to manufacture in bulk in these Asian countries.

iv) These multinational companies by their relocation of industry to low-wage countries of Asia stimulated world trade and capital flow.

v) They proved a great help to the true beginning of globalisation.

Q.19. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?

Ans: The Bretton Woods Agreement was signed between the world powers in July 1944 as a result of the
United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, U.S.A. This conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.

Both these institutions commenced financial operations in 1947 which they are continuing upto this date. Under this system or agreement, the national currencies followed the fixed exchange rates and were pegged to the US dollars. This system ushered an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan. There was also worldwide spread of technology.

Q.20. What do you mean by the Silk Routs. What was their importance?

Ans: Of all the routes connecting the ancient world, the most important routes were the silk routes. They are
known to have existed even before the Christian era and thrived almost till the fifteenth century. These
routes proved a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between different parts of the
These ancient routes were called the silk routes because along these routes were mainly carried the silk
cargoes from China to different regions of Asia, Europe and Northern Africa. But by the same routes were
carried the Chinese pottery, the Indian spices and textiles. In turn, through these silk routes were carried
precious metals – gold and silver, from Europe to Asia. Among these routes, the Buddhist preachers, Christian missionaries and later on the Muslim preachers  travelled far and wide. Thus these silk routes proved a great source of trade and cultural exchanges.

Q.21. What causes led to the decline of the Indian textiles?

Ans: Upto the 18th century, the Indian textiles had a wider market all over the world but in the 19th century, it saw a rapid decline from 30% around 1800 to 15% by 1815. By the 1870s, this proportion had dropped to below 3%. What a tragedy !

The chief causes for this rapid decline were the following:

i) The first was the Industrial Revolution in England as a result of which England stopped all imports of
textiles from India.

ii) Instead it flooded the Indian market with machine-made cloth which was cheaper and more attractive.

iii) While heavy taxes were imposed on the export of Indian textiles, the British textiles and their imports in
to India were left duty free.

iv) The East Indian Company bought almost all the cotton from the Indian bazaars and sent to England to
feed the cotton factories there. Almost no or very little cotton as a raw material was left for the Indian textile industries.

v) Heavy taxes were imposed on the Indian manufacturing units engaged in textiles so they were made to die
a natural death.

vi) Even the railways were used to export cotton from India and carry British cloth to the Indian market.
Thus the British Government choked the Indian textile industry by their unjust and indiscriminate
economic policies.

Q.22. Explain the causes of Great Depression.

Ans: There was a world-wide economic crisis in 1929 which in many countries continued upto 1934. It started in the U.S.A. but soon it engulfed many countries of the world except Russian. Some of its causes were the following.

i) The First World War (1914-1918) had given a great boost to the American industry. But after the war
when its industries continued producing different articles at the breakneck speed, there was a glut in the market. The exports had fallen and the home market could not absorb all those products. As a result the unsold stock of goods began to pile up in the 1930s. the lack of buyers ruined both the industrialists and
the farming community. Thus USA was caught in a severe economic crisis.

ii) As a result the American capitalist stopped all loans to the European countries thus halting all production

iii) The sudden stoppage of American capital caused an unprecedented economic crisis there.

iv) The defeat of Germany in the First World War had already ruined her and her industry. So she became
and easy victim of the economic crisis.

v) Last but not the least, the labour saving machines and the abundances of agricultural products was also
responsible for the economic depression in Europe.

Q.23. What were the results of the Economic Crisis of 1929-1934?

Ans. The Economic Crisis of 1929-1934 had far reaching effects on U.S.A., Europe and other part of the world.
i) The economic depression led to the deterioration of the economic conditions of the capitalist countries of
Europe and the U.S.A.

ii) There was a great fall in the industrial production as the demand fro goods of all types also fell, men were
laid off and factories closed. The industrial production in 1933 was only half the 1929 level.

iii) Unemployment soared very high and world unemployment doubled. There were 5 to 10 crores of unemployed persons in the world. The number of unemployed persons stood round 14 million in the
U.S.A. alone.

iv) There was a great fall in the living standard of the people in all parts of the world.

v) The economic depression resulted in poverty. Many people became poor and led a miserable life and
began to die of hunger.
vi) Agricultural prices fell disastrously in many countries.
vii) The results of this depression in Italy and Germany were insecurity, unemployment, poverty, frustration,
panic and discontentment. This led to the rise of Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany. Democratic Party cam to power in U.S.A. under the leadership of Roosevelt. It adopted the policy of ‘New Deal’ to overcome the evil effects of the economic depression and to provide jobs to the people and to improve the
condition of the workers.

viii) The New Deal of Roosevelt in America and the economic nationalism of Britain necessitated state

The Age of Industrialisation

Q.1 What was the result of the import of Manchester cloth to India?

Ans: i) It ruined the cloth industry in India because the Manchester cloth was both cheap showy and durable.
ii) The weavers were forced to give up their ancestral profession of cloth weaving and had to work as
labourers in urban areas.

Q.2. What was the result of First World War on Indian industries?

Ans: The First World War gave a great boost to the Indian industries because of the following reasons:

i) The British mills became busy with the production of war materials so all its export to India virtually stopped.

ii) Suddenly, Indian mills got clearance to produce different articles for the home market.

iii) The Indian factories were called upon to supply various war related materials like jute bags, cloth for
uniforms, tents and leather boots for the forces and so on.

Q.3. Explain the meaning of term ‘Industrial Revolution’.

Ans: The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ stands for those developments and inventions which revolutionized the
technique and organization of production in the latter half of the 18th century. The Industrial Revolution in face replaced the domestic system, by the new ‘factory system’. In place of animal and manual power, new machines and steam-power were used for producing things. This revolution replaced the cottage industry by the factories, the handwork by the machine-work and the craftsmen and the artists by the capitalist and the factory-owners.

Q.4. Why does industrialization affect farming or agriculture?

Ans: Effects of Industrialization on Agriculture. With Industrialization grew the demand for raw-materials so rapidly that it forced the cultivators to adopt new methods to ensure more production. New machines were invented for digging the soil, sowing seeds, reaping the harvest and thrashing the corn. New crops were sown and chemical fertilizers were developed for a bumper harvest. Means of irrigation were improved and new breeds of farm cattle were developed. These and several other techniques ensured more food for the growing population and more raw material for the growing industries.

Q.5. What conditions are favourable for the continuing growth of industries in India?
1) India abounds in coal and iron-ore deposits, which are essential for the development of industries. We can
export our surplus coal and iron-ore to other countries.

2) We have a number of perennial rivers whose perpetual flow of water can be used to generate more electric power.

3) We can produce abundant raw-materials as wer have vast agricultural potential in rich and fertile land of
our big country.

4) We have a vast network of roads and railways and our shipping industry has also developed considerably
and as such we can transport our goods not only within India but also outside India.

5) India itself is a big market with its big population. Besides, Indian goods are in great demand in several
Arabian and Asian countries.

6) We have good potential in capital as well. Besides, the foreign aid and the foreign investment can also
help us in this respect.

Q.6. Explain the factors responsible for the Industrial Revolution in England.
Give reasons why Industrial Revolution started first of all in England.
Explain those factors which were responsible for the Industrial Revolution in England.

Ans: The Industrial Revolution began in England in the later half of the 18th century as favourable conditions
for such a development were present there:

1) Men like Walpole, who was a great economist, encouraged the foreign trade which brought more and
more wealth to England. The British traders had thus accumulated sufficient capital that was needed to
establish new factories.

2) England had plenty of natural resources like iron and coal which are essential for industries.
3) England had established many new colonies from where they could easily get cheat raw-materials and
which could also serve as best markets for finished goods.
4) England had developed a large shipping industry which solved their problem of transporting things to
distant lands.

Q.7. ‘Industrialisation gave birth to Imperialism’. How?
How did Industrial Revolution give rise to Capitalism? Elucidate.

Ans: There is no exaggeration in calling imperialism as the ill-begotten child of industrialization. Other things
beside, industrialization chiefly needs two things. One of them being the constant supply of raw-materials
and the other is that the finished goods be sold at the same speed. The industrialized countries had introduced heavy import duties as protective tariffs to check the import from other countries. Faced with
the problem of finding new markets for their products, the producer nations chose such countries where industrialization had not yet reached. Hence a race for bringing those areas under their effective occupation or effective influence started among the various industrialized nations. As a consequence, Britain, France, Germany and Japan, etc. set up their colonies in Asia, Africa and South America etc.

These colonies served their two purposes of being the suppliers of cheap raw materials and an easy market for their finished goods. In this way, it can be rightly said that industrialization gave birth to imperialism or carving out of new colonies in other lands.

Urbanization and Urban Life

Q.1 Give some chief characteristics of the city.
Distinguish between cities on the one hand and town and villages on the other.

Ans: Chief Characteristics of the Cities and their Distinction from the Towns and Villages:
i) Cities, like London and Bombay, were larger on scale as compare to towns and villages like Ur, Nippur
and Mohejodaro.
ii) Cities could develop only when there was an increase in food supplies that could support a wide range of
non-food producers. Villages and towns required only food supplies in small quantitites.
iii) Cities were often the centre of multifarious activities, like trade and industry, religious institutions,
intellectual pursuits and administrative set-up while villages and towns had restricted activities.
iv) In cities, a large number of social groups such as merchants, traders, bankers, wholesale traders and
brokers, skilled artisans and various professionals lived while the villages and towns were predominated
by farmers and petty artisans and shopkeepers.

Q.2. What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the 19th and the
20th century? Explain the factors which led to this change.

1) Women in the later 18th and early 19th centuries were employed in large number in the factories because
they were available at cheaper rates than men.
2) In the 19th century due to technological developments, women gradually lost their industrial jobs and
forced to work elsewhere. Some of them began to work as maid servants so much so that their number
rose to quarter of a million as recorded by the Census of 1861.
Some other women, who remained within the four walls of their houses, increase the family income
through various activities as tailoring, washing, making match boxes etc.
However, there was a change once again in the beginning of the 20th century when women got
employment in the wartime industries and offices linked with war activities. They happily gave up their
domestic services.

Q.3. Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of the migrants?

Ans: There is no denying the fact that a number of Bombay films were about the lives of the migrants. There
were reasons for the same.
1) Most of the film directors, film producers, playwriter, dramatists and artists were themselves migrants,
who came from far off areas to Bombay, so naturally they were familiar and more interested in themes
relating to them. The Kapoors, the Ghais, the Chopras, the Sehgals (Shri K.L. Sehgal, the immortal
singer) were all migrants (from Punjab), without whose help were cannot think of the Bombay dream
2) The migrants, especially the labourers and factory workers, led a very pathetic life which can easily be
converted into a good theme for films. So many films were made on the housing problems of the migrants. The clash of interests between the tenants and owners of the ‘Chawls’ over and over again were
woven into interesting themes by the different Directors and Film Producers.

Q.4. Explain what is meant by the Haussmanization of Paris. To what extent would you support or
oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper to either support or
oppose this, giving reasons for your view.

Ans: What is meant by Haussmanization of Paris. It simply means the new city of Paris as was designed by
the chief architect of new Paris. At the instance of Napoleon III (a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte), Haussmann built the new city of Paris for continuous 17 years (between 1852 to 1869). He designed straight, broad avenues (or boulavards) and open spaces and transplanted full grown trees. By 1870, about
one-fifth of the streets of Paris were the creation of Haussmann. In addition night patrols were introduced,
bus shelters were built and tap water introduced.

Opposition of Haussmanization. Many opposed this form of development. About 350,000 people were
evicted from the centre of Paris. Some said that the city of Paris had been monstrously transformed. Some
lamented the passing of an earlier way of life and the development of an upper class culture. Others
believed that Haussmann had killed the street and its life to produce and empty boring city.

Arguments in Support of Haussmanization. The new Paris city soon got converted into a civic pride as
the new capital became the toast of all Europe. Paris became the hub of many new architecture, social and
intellectual developments that were very influenced through the 20th century in many parts of the world.
Guidelines. The students now to write a letter to the editor of a newspaper to either support or oppose
this, giving reasons for their views.

Print Culture and The Modern World

Q.1 Who was Martin Luther?

Ans: He was a great religious reformer of Germany, who by his criticism of the Roman Catholic Church laid
the foundation of the Reformation Movement in Europe.

Q.2. What is meant by Reformation?

Ans: It was a reform movement started in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Religion.

Q.3. When did the first printing press come to India?

Ans: The printing-press first came to India in Goa with the Portuguese missionaries in the mid-sixteenth

Q.4. What led to the diversification in the use of print in China?

Ans: Upto the sixteenth century, the print was used only by the scholars officials but in the 17th century, the
merchants along with the reading public also began to use print in their everyday life.

Q.5. What was the use of printing press?

Ans: (1) It enabled people to produce books at greater speed.
(2) The production of books in large number created a new culture of reading and enlarged the number of

Q.6. Write a short note on – The Gutenburg Press.

Ans: Before the invention of the Printing Press, it was very difficult to spread knowledge because the books
were written by hand and they were also very costly. Knowledge was the privilege of the wealthy people only, but the things changed with the invention of the printing press. The first printing press was set up in
Germany by Gutenburg in 1448. He developed metal types for each of the 26 characters of the Roman
alphabet and devised a way of moving them around so as to compose different words of the text. His
novel press came to be known as the moveable type printing machine and it remained the basic print
technology for the next 300 years. His press could print 250 sheets on one side per hour.The first book he printed was the Bible.

Q.7. Who was Martin Luther? What is his contribution to the Protestant Reformation?
Give reason for the following – Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it.

Ans: Martin Luther was a great reformer of Germany. The credit for starting Reformation in Germany goes to him. In 1512 A.D., he went to Rome for pilgrimage. He was stunned to see that the Pope had sunk to the
level of an Italian Prince and led a very luxurious life. The corrupt practices of the church and immoral
life of the clergymen brought a great change in his ideas and he became a staunch opponent of the Pope.
When working as a Professor at the University of Wittenburg, he was asked to sell ‘Indulgences’ as a
means of salvation he frankly refused. Instead he wrote down his objections against the scale of
Indulgences’ in Latin, in the form o f95 statements known as ‘Ninety-Five Theses’ and nailed them on the
door of the church at Wittenburg and challenged the scholars to have a debate on them. In these Theses,
Luther laid great stress on faith and strongly opposed the sale and purchase of Indulgences as a means of
salvation. He believed in the infallibility of the Bible and not of the Pope.
Luther’s Theses were printed and distributed widely in Germany. They created a great excitement
everywhere. Consequently, a National Church was established in Germany and prayers began to be held
in the German language. This fact proved the beginning of the Reformation Movement in Europe.
Luther’s translation of the New Testament were sold 5,000 copies within a few weeks and the second
edition appeared within three months. Deeply grateful to print he remarked, “Printing is the ultimately
gift of God and the greatest one”.

Q.8. write a short note on ‘Erasmus’s idea of the printed books’.
Who was Erasmus? Why is he remembered in history?

Ans: Erasmus (1466 – 1533). He was a great reformer of Holland. He was the pioneer of Reformation in
Holland. He was the foremost advocate of the new learning and was deadly opposed to corrupt and
immoral life of the pope and the clergymen. He severely condemned evil practices and abuses of the
church. He was in favour of bringing reforms in the church by peaceful means, but he disliked violent
methods, ‘Pocket Dagger’, ‘Praise of Folly’ and ‘New Testament’ are his famous works. In the ‘Praise of
Folly’ he had denounced the abuses of the church in a very sarcastic manner. He wanted to effect the
reforms in the church by a direct appeal to the reason of man. It has been rightly remarked. “The jokes of
Erasmus did the Pope more harm than the anger of Luther”. His influence extended to England, France,
Germany and Italy also.
Erasmus’s words about printing are worth quoting, He says, “To what corner of the world do they
not fly, these swarms of new books? It may be that one here and there contributes something worth
knowing, but the very multitude of them is hurtful to scholarship, because it creates a glut, and even in
good things satiety is most harmful…….. (printers) fill the world with books, not just trifling things (such
as I write, perhaps), but stupid, ignorant, slanderous, scandalous, raving, irreligious and seditious books,
and the number of them is such that even the valuable publications lose their value”.

Q.9. Why did some people in eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring
enlightenment and end despotism?
What is the contribution of print to the spread of knowledge?

Ans: Contribution of Print – There is no denying the fact that the invention of print has greatly contributed to
the spread of knowledge. Without this invention, all the progress that we see today was not possible. The
words of the German reformer Martin Luther in favour of print, and worth quoting. Deeply grateful to
print, he said, ‘Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one.” What better words can be said in
favour of print!

Author after author, whether educationist, religious and social and the political giants, sing in favour of
i) Without the introduction and invention of the new print technology, the quicker and cheaper
reproduction of texts was not possible.
ii) Printing reduced the cost of books as a result books could reach out to wider sections of the
society otherwise they would have been only the luxury of the elite or the rich people.
iii) As a result of the printing technology, the time and labour required to produce each book came
down which resulted in flooding the market, reaching over to ever growing readership.
iv) Painting led to the rise of literacy rate in almost all countries of the world in the 17th and 18th and
the subsequent centuries.
v) Similarly, the ideas of scientists and philosophers became more accessible to the common people.
The writings of great thinkers like Thomas Paine, Rousseau, Montesquien, Voltaire completely
revolutionized the moods of the people and some of them began to think that print culture would
bring not only enlightenment but also end of despotism.
Most of the revolutions of the world, which ended despotism and brought about democrate governments
in the world were much because of the advancement of the print culture. Without the spread of education
and knowledge, how could such a transformation be possible.

Q.10. Explain how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India.

Ans: How Print Culture assisted the Growth of nationalism in India? There is no doubt that the print culture,
both Indian press and the liberature, also played a vital part in the growth of nationalism in India. In the
nineteenth century, a large quantity of national literature was created which brought about a great
revolution in the minds of the people and inspired them to fight against British imperialism. The Indian
press also contributed in arousing the national consciousness among the people of India. Newspapers like
the ‘Indian Mirror’. ‘Bombay Samachar.’ ‘The Amrit Bazar Patrika’ ‘The Hindu’. ‘The Kesari’, and
several others had a great influence on the political life of this country. A continuous pouring in of
national articles by such great patriots as Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Din Bandhu Mitra, Rabindra Nath
Tagore and Lokmanya Tilak etc, slowly and slowly worked a miracle in rousing political consciousness
among the Indians and prepare them for the national struggle.

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