Monday, December 29, 2014

CBSE_NCERT Class 6th Chapter-Waste (Garbage In, Garbage Out )

CBSE 6th Chapter -Waste (Garbage In, Garbage Out )

• Introduction

• Segregation of wastes

• Management of biodegradable wastes

• Composting, Landfills - Structure of a landfill

• Management of Non-Biodegradable Wastes

• Reduce, Reuse, Recycle - Recycling of Plastics, 
Recycling of paper

Garbage Disposal

A large, low-lying area used to dispose garbage is known as a dump. 

A garbage dump is also used as landfill. Garbage collectors collect waste and then dispose it at 
garbage disposals. 

Garbage dumps have flies, cockroaches and mosquitoes, and later turn into breeding grounds for micro-organisms that may cause diseases. That is why these garbage dumps are usually located on the outskirts of a city.

Components of garbage: Garbage has useful and non-useful components.

ü Useful garbage components are those that can be decayed easily. The process of decaying is known as 
composting. Useful garbage components are fruit and vegetable waste, plant and animal waste, tea leaves, coffee grounds and paper. These useful components of garbage are converted into manure in the soil.

ü Non-useful garbage components include polythene bags, plastics, glass and aluminum foils. These take longer to decay. Decaying of these non-useful components is known as decomposition. When non-useful components decay, they release harmful gases that damage the environment. To avoid the adverse impact, these garbage items are sent for recycling. For example, when leaves burn, they release harmful gases and causes air pollution. Moreover, they lead to asthma and lung diseases. That is why leaves should be buried so as to convert them into manure.

ü Vermicomposting
The process of preparing compost with the help of red worms is called vermicomposting. The red worm is a type of earthworm that lives in the soil rich in organic matter, which is a combination of nitrogen-rich and carbon-rich material with plenty of moisture and microbes.
Method of Vermicompositing
A vermicomposting pit is made with a wooden box or big cement rings.  A mesh is spread at the bottom of the pit. Vegetable waste, fruit waste, waste paper which is not shiny or coated with plastic, is spread over the mesh. Water is sprinkled to create moisture so that the red worms can live. A vermicomposting pit takes nearly two to four weeks to completely convert waste into manure.
Waste material that is rich in oils, salt, meat and vinegar stops the growth of red worms. These red worms have a special structure called gizzards with which they grind food material. A red worm eats food equal to its weight every day. Red worms do not survive in too hot or too cold conditions.

Recycling Paper and Plastics

It is important to reuse things than discarding them as waste. Industries use recycled or waste paper to regenerate paper. Paper that is suitable for recycling is called "scrap paper". You can recycle old newspapers, magazines, notebooks and used envelopes, but not waxed paper, oil-soaked paper, paper contaminated with food, carbon paper, thermal fax paper, plastic laminated paper, stickers, and sanitary products or tissues.

Steps involved in recycling paper

ü  Tear paper into small pieces.
ü   Soak these pieces in water for a day.
ü   Make a thick paste and spread it on a net or sieve.
ü   Let water drain off completely
ü  Use an old cloth or newspaper to remove the extra water from the paste and dry it.

ü   Use this paste to get beautiful patterns.

Disadvantages of using of polythene bags 

We use many plastic items such as tooth brush, combs, containers, bottles, shoes, toys, wires, frames and bags every day but using plastic is very harmful in terms of health and as well as the environment. Plastics are not suitable for storing cooked food because they emit harmful chemicals when they are exposed to high temperatures. Using plastics causes health problems such as heart disease, diabetes and reproductive dysfunction. 

Harmful gases are emitted from burning plastics, which cause cancer and they kill living beings. That is why plastics should be disposed in the right way.
Plastics thrown casually get into drains and sewages, often blocking the way and causing water-logging. So polythene bags should not be used for garbage disposal.

Measures taken to prevent from the dangerous effects of plastics:ü  Reduce, reuse and recycle plastics.
ü  Carry jute or cloth bags for shopping
ü Do not store food items in plastic bags.
ü  Do not burn plastic items.
ü  Recycle plastics so that new plastic items can be made.
ü  Waste that does not decompose should be put in blue dustbins, while waste that decomposes easily should be put in green dustbins.

Conversion of the waste generated in the kitchen into organic matter with the combined action of earthworms and micro-organisms is called vermicomposting . The organic matter so formed is used as manure for plants

VI – SCIENCE WORKSHEET: Garbage In, Garbage Out 

I. Fill in the blanks :
1. Method of making compost using _____________ is called vermin composting
2. Converting plant and animals wastes into manure is called ____________.
3. ____________ is an area where the garbage is collected.
4. We need to generate ____________ waste.
II. True or False Sentences :
1. Paper can be recycled to get useful products.
2. Drains get choked due to plastic thrown by us.
3. Plastics are eco-friendly.
4. Redworms eat up on green leaves on trees and make compost.
5. Plastics give out harmful gases up on heating or burning.
III. Answer these Questions
1. How do earthworms increase fertility of soil?
2. Rag pickers always suffer from diseases why?
3. Why does composting of leaves better than burning them?
4. Why should plastic food containers be avoided?
5. Why we should not throw away any things that can be recycled?
6. Why recycled plastic are not recommended for storing food in?
8. What is waste management and why it is so important?
9. Which garden worm generally used for Vermi composting.   
10. Why worm box aerated in the process of vermi composting?

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